|1||Injection Flaws||Injection flaws, such as SQL, OS, and LDAP injection, occur when untrusted data is sent to an interpreter as part of a command or query. The attackers hostile data can trick the interpreter into executing unintended commands or accessing unauthorized data.|
|2||Cross Site Scripting (XSS)||XSS flaws occur whenever an application takes untrusted data and sends it to a web browser without proper validation and escaping. XSS allows attackers to execute script in the victims browser which can hijack user sessions, deface web sites, or redirect the user to malicious sites.|
|3||Broken Authentication and Session Management||Application functions related to authentication and session management are often not implemented correctly, allowing attackers to compromise passwords, keys, session tokens, or exploit implementation flaws to assume other users' identities.|
|4||Insecure Direct Object Reference||A direct object reference occurs when a developer exposes a reference to an internal implementation object, such as a file, directory, or database key. Without an access control check or other protection, attackers can manipulate these references to access unauthorized data.|
|5||Cross Site Request Forgery (CSRF)||A CSRF attack forces a logged-on victim's browser to send a forged HTTP request, including the victim's session cookie and any other authentication information, to a vulnerable web application. This allows the attacker to force the victim's browser to generate requests the vulnerable application thinks are legitimate requests from the victim.|
|6||Security Misconfiguration||Security depends on having a secure configuration defined for the application, framework, web server, application server, and platform. All these settings should be defined, implemented, and maintained as many are not shipped with secure defaults.|
|7||Failure to Restrict URL Access||Many web applications check URL access rights before rendering protected links and buttons. However, applications need to perform similar access control checks when these pages are accessed, or attackers will be able to forge URLs to access these hidden pages anyway.|
|8||Unvalidated Redirects and Forwards||Web applications frequently redirect and forward users to other pages and websites, and use untrusted data to determine the destination pages. Without proper validation, attackers can redirect victims to phishing or malware sites, or use forwards to access unauthorized pages.|
|9||Insecure Cryptographic Storage||Many web application do not properly protect sensitive data, such as credit cards, SSNs, and authentication credentials, with appropriate encryption or hashing. Attackers may use this weakly protected data to conduct identity theft, credit card fraud, or other crimes.|
|10||Insufficient Transport Layer Protection||Applications frequently fail to encrypt network traffic when it is necessary to protect sensitive communications. When they do, they sometimes support weak algorithms, use expired or invalid certificates, or do not use them correctly.|
In this 2010 release, the OWASP made the following significant changes:
Attackers may search and use different paths through your application to attach Web applications.
Under the concept of risk management, each of these paths represents a risk that may or may not be serious enough to warrant attention. To determine the risk levels to an organization, the likelihood associated with the attack vector, weakness prevalende and detectability, and its technical impact needs to be analyzed (See OWASP Risk Rating Methodology).